Unquestionably the three fundamentals of karate are KATA, KIHON and KUMITE. These are the staples of most dojos and it is absolutely vital to master these areas. However in addition to these we also include BUNKAI (the application of moves and techniques), SELF DEFENCE, and basic JUDO principles (including take-downs, throws and ground techniques). To test the students mastery of these techniques, GRADINGS are conducted when certain criteria have been reached. This is an important part of karate training, especially for children, because it gives an indication of their progression and allows them to experience the satisfaction derived from their achievement.